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Utilization > use of computer equipment and can be used by management to predict how/where/when resources are required.
Hardware error > provide information to aid in detecting hardware failures and initiating corrective action.

System logs > recording of the system activities
Availability report > time periods during which the computer was available for utilization by uses or other processes.

Identifying illegal software packages loaded to the network can be checked by checking hard drives.

Database renormalizing > increased redundancy.
Normalization is optimization process for a relational database that minimizes redundancy. 
Referential integrity > it ensures that a foreign key in one table will equal null or the value of a primary in the other table.
Cyclical checking > It is the control technique for the regular checking of accumulated data on a file against authorized source documentation.
Domain integrity > data item has a legitimate value in the correct range or set.
Relational integrity > performed at the record level and is ensured by calculating and verifying specific fields.
Concurrency controls prevent data integrity problems.
Access control restrict updating of the database to authorized users.
Quality controls such as edits ensures the accuracy, completeness and consistency of data maintained in the database.
Database integrity > Table link/reference checks ensure the database integrity.
Audit logs > enable recording of all events that have been identified and help in tracing the events.
Querying /Monitoring > access time checks helps designers improve database performance.
Rollback and roll forward > ensure recovery from an abnormal disruption.

Configuration management is widely accepted as one of the key components of any network.

Topological mappings provide outlines of the components of the network and its connectivity. Application monitoring is not essential and proxy server troubleshooting is used for troubleshooting purposes.

CRC > check for a block of transmitted data. CRC can detect all single-bit and bubble-bit errors.
Parity Check (Vertical redundancy check) >
Echo checks > detect line errors

Screening router / Packet filterwork at the protocol, service and port level. It analyze from layers 3 and 4.
Circuit gateway > like proxy or program that acts as an intermediary between external and internal accesses.

Managing risk steps :  identification and classification of critical information > Identification of threats, vulnerabilities > calculation of potential damages.

Screened-subnet firewall > used as a demilitarized zone. Utilizes two packet filtering routes and a bastion host.
Screened-host firewall > utilizes a packet filtering router and a bastion host.

Atomicity > Guarantees that either the entire transaction is processed or none of it is.
Consistency > ensures that the database is in a legal state when the transaction begins

and ends.

Isolation > means that, while in a intermediate state, the transaction data are invisible to external operations.
Durability > Guarantees that a successful transaction will persist, and cannot be undone.

Hardware maintenance program should be validated against vendor specifications. Maintenance schedules normally are not approved by the steering committee. Unplanned maintenance can’t be scheduled.

Library control software should be used to separate test from production libraries in mainframe and / or client server environments. The main objective of library control software is to provide assurance that program changes have been authorized. Library control software is concerned with authorized program changes and would not automatically move modified programs into production and can’t determine whether programs have been thoroughly tested.

Referential integrity is provided by foreign key.
Post-incident review improve internal control procedures.
Capacity management is the planning and monitoring of computer resources to ensure that available IT resources are used efficiently and effectively.

Determine unauthorized changes made to production code the auditor examine object code to find instances of changes and trace them back to change control records.

Normalization > is the removal of redundant data elements from the database structure. Disabling normalization in relational databases will create redundancy and risk of not maintaining consistency of data, with the consequent loss of data integrity.